examples of cumulative advantage

Cumulative inequality theory or Cumulative Disadvantage Theory is the systematic explanation of how inequalities develop. Formulas and Examples There are several simple formulas an investor in cumulative preferred stock should know. But even a cursory knowledge of business history shows a belief like this to be misguided. Even if "accumulative advantage" does play a part in advancements, it is not the only way … I do think something as simple as when you were born can give you an advantage over others. The cumulative advantage (CA) principle posits that after a social agent acquires a small advantage over other social agents, they are in a better position to gain a larger advantage in the future. 2. For example, cumulative risk for a heart attack could include risk factors like obesity, high blood pressure, family history of heart attacks, etc. Cumulative Advantage is sometimes known as The Matthew Effect or Accumulated Advantage or “the rich get richer, the poor get poorer”. A brand can create a competitive advantage if it is clear about these three determinants: Even though the definition of competitive advantage remains the same, different marketers have stated different types of competitive advantages. Comparative advantage is when a nation can produce a particular good at a lower opportunity cost than other nations. In a line of work beginning in the 1980s, Crystal and Shea utilized the term “cumulative advantage and cumulative disadvantage” to describe processes by which the effects of early economic, educational, and other advantages can cumulate over the life course (Crystal, 1986, 2006a, 2006b; Crystal & Shea, 1990a, 1990b, 2003b; Crystal, Shea, & Krishnaswami, … Is that even something one can actively manage? 1. Comparative advantage is where a country incurs a lower opportunity cost in producing a good compared to other countries, thus it should specialise in producing that good and produce for the world market by exporting it. Target Market:The perfect knowledge of who buys from the brand, what they desire from t… Focus on appearance. It is what makes the brand, product, or service to be perceived as superior to the other competitors. Learn more. Let us suppose hypothetically that some players begin the game with $5,000, others begin with $1,000, and still others with only $500. For example, a nation that can produce cranberries at $4 a bag as compared to a nation that produces them at … The concept of cumulative advantage/disadvantage (CAD) resonates with popular folk sayings like “success breeds success” (Huber, as quoted in Dannefer, 2003) and “the rich gets richer, the poor get poorer” (Entwisle, Alexander, & Olson, as quoted in Danneer, 2003). In the beginning, … I’d love to hear what you’ve got to say about it. Is Justin Timberlake a Product of Cumulative Advantage? The Matthew effect of accumulated advantage, Matthew principle, or Matthew effect for short, is sometimes summarized by the adage "the rich get richer and the poor get poorer". Say its neighbor has no oil but lots of farmland and fresh water. This review shows that the term cumulative advantage … A common example of Cumulative Advantage is that a prize will almost always be awarded to the most senior researcher involved in a project, even if all the work was done by a graduate student. : “This means that if one object happens to be slightly more popular than another at just the right point, it will tend to become more popular still. It differs from the Negative Binomial Die tribution in that lack of success, being a non-event, is not punished by increased … • Christine Evans: “Cumulative Advantage and Women Playwrights” […] Why Television Writing Staffs Lack Diversity - Ms. The smart pricing, differentiation, branding, marketing, asset, and targeting strategies make some brands, products, and services to be perceived as superior to others. Better quality of apples? As successful players accumulate income-producing property through a combination of skill and luck, their cumulative advantages allow them to reinvest new income in accumulating still more property, producing still more new income. What could be the secret to his success this time? The senior researched has accumulated that advantage. We recommend that you use your own judgement and consult with your own consultant, lawyer, accountant, or other licensed professional for relevant business decisions. Distinguishing between Cumulative (Dis)Advantage and the Matthew Mechanism. Types Of Customers Explained, What Is Marketing? enti–c careers, cumulative advantage is a general mechanism for inequality across any temporal process (e.g., life course, family generations) in which a favorable relative position becomes a resource that produces further rel-ative gains. A kid who is born in January has an 11 months advantage over the kid who is born in December (10% more life). Thousands of little boys play at the novice levels, but only the best graduate up the ranks to the elite league, Major Junior A. Now the first country has a comparative advantage in oil. A strong brand, big pockets, network effect, patents, and trademarks are few other competitive advantage strategies businesses use to outdo their competitors. It can be used in the practical field such as literature and studies, but it is also effective in expressing your thoughts in casual events like talking to your friend, parents, workmates, etc. What are you waiting for? Cumulative Advantage, Cumulative Disadvantage, and Inequality among Elderly People. In Beeghly’s version, each player begins with a different sum of money. These include Social Security Old Age and Survivors Insurance (projected at $772 billion in 2016, about 19% of federal spending and 4.1% of GDP) and other pension payments (Congressio… Yet equal opportunity at the start soon gives way to extreme inequalities in the distribution of resources. Now suppose these 3 fruit sellers started selling apples at the exact same rate, yet the previous market leader is leading this time too. What could be the secret to his success? When not working, he can be found hiking, camping, and stargazing. Suppose there are 3 fruit sellers selling the exact same quality of apples near your house, but one of them attracts over 50% of the customers while the other two just sit and see the customers buying from him. The CA principle is sometimes called the Matthew Effect, which is used in explaining the “rich get richer and the … Formulas and Examples There are several simple formulas an investor in cumulative preferred stock should know. Recent census data analysis suggests economic inequality greatest among elderly. Competitive advantage is a favourable position a business holds in the market which results in more customers and profits. As a result, even tiny, random fluctuations can blow up, generating potentially enormous long-run differences among even indistinguishable competitors — a phenomenon that is similar in some ways to the famous “butterfly effect” from chaos theory.”. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Cumulative Sentences Defined and Illustrated "The typical sentence of modern English, the kind we can best spend our efforts trying to write, is what we will call the cumulative sentence.The main or base clause, which may or may not have sentence modifiers like this before or within it, advances the discussion or … This is a fair system, giving equal opportunity to all players to demonstrate their skills. I invite you to share additional ones and I’ll update the list. Michael Porter, a Harvard University graduate, wrote a book in 1985 named – Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance, which identified three strategies which businesses can use to tackle competition and create a sustainable competitive advantage. Our philosophy is to research, curate, and provide the best startup feeds and resources to help you succeed in your venture. The world is full of geometric shapes and ... Read more, Moment Marketing: Explaining The Right Time Marketing, Fear Of Missing Out | Your Guide To FoMO Marketing Strategies, Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance, White Label: Meaning, Process, & Examples. Questions: is it worthwhile, useful or even morally OK to identify whatever advantage you’ve got and leverage it in this way? These strategies lead to a state of competitive advantage which makes the business cater to more-than-average customers and earn more-than-average profits. If a country is to have a comparative advantage in producing a product, it must be able to produce that particular product at a lower opportunity cost in relation with another country. This effect is well known and is embodied in the catchphrase “ the rich get richer while the poor get poorer ”. Cumulative sentences are beneficial in various scenarios. LinkedIn is not a conventional social media network. We use the “cumulative advantage” (CA) locution in the current paper, while noting that careful attention is needed to both sides of the advantage/disadvantage coin, and to a broader perspective on “disadvantage” than is reflected, for example, in studies focusing … © Content Copyright 2000 - 2020 Rob Kelly. A common example of Cumulative Advantage is that a prize will almost always be awarded to the most senior researcher involved in a project, even if all the work was done by a graduate student. A brand can create a competitive advantage if it is clear about these three determinants: 1. They can well afford to acquire every property they land on, and they soon own a disproportionate share of the income-producing properties on the board. But … A General Theory of Bibliometric and Other Cumulative Advantage Processes* A Cumulative Advantage Distribution is proposed which models statistically the situation in which success breeds success. It is focused on the business professionals and enjoys a competitive advantage for being a niche social media network. This advantage only became apparent in more recent years. The Cumulative Advantage Model. Alex is a 15-year-old boy who has experienced multiple stressors in his short life. In The Biz - April 10, 2014 […] number of causes collude to keep staffs primarily white and male, with one of the big ones being cumulative advantage. Tell us what you think about our article on competitive advantage in the comments section. Certain disadvantages at one point in your life can become a financial or social advantage at some point, just like having advantages growing up can turn into disadvantages … Perception matters. Though there may be ups and downs along the way, the richer players tend to get richer, and the poorer players poorer, until eventually the richest player has monopolized all resources and the poor are left with nothing at all. Product or company names, logos, and trademarks referred to on this site belong to their respective owners. Paper Topic: Concept of cumulative advantage and disadvantage Running Head : Concepts of Cumulative Advantage and Disadvantage An Essay on Cumulative Advantage /Disadvantage and the Life Course Cross-Fertilizing Age and Social Science Theory Dale Dannefer [University] The concept of cumulative advantage … Learn how your comment data is processed. Gerontologist, v30 n4 p437-43 Aug 1990. Once a person has an advantage over others, more and more advantages can follow. For example, according to cumulative advantage/preferential attachment, Apple will forever be the king of consumer electronics, and Google will forever own the Internet. Google enjoys the competitive advantage of being the only effective search engine over the internet. Cumulative Advantage is sometimes known as The Matthew Effect or Accumulated Advantage or “the rich get richer, the poor get poorer”. Initial advantages are parlayed into greater advantages, creating a widening gap between haves and have-nots—or, more precisely, between have-mores and have-lesses—through time. -Explanation With Examples, What Is A Business Model? One of the biggest reason is the network effect, but other reasons which led to this success are constant innovation, the advertisement (free) business model, and the personalized content. The following are illustrative examples. Cumulative Sentence Examples. Organizational processing of individuals Schools, work organizations, and correctional and military institutions are examples of organizations for which “people-processing” (whether as students, employees, inductees, or wards) is a central function. But even a cursory knowledge of business history shows a belief like this to be misguided. With its biggest competitor, Google plus, not even being close to it, Facebook surely enjoys a competitive advantage over its competitors. – Principles, Types & Scope, What Is Product Line? For example, according to cumulative advantage/preferential attachment, Apple will forever be the king of consumer electronics, and Google will forever own the Internet. Thus, it refers to a set of social dynamics that operate … Aashish has worked with over a 100 startups and successfully helped them ideate, raise money, and succeed. It can get more food from its neighbor by trading it for oil than it could produce on its own. The Cumulative Advantage Model. According to him, these three generic strategies are: However, modern competitive advantages aren’t limited to these three. It's the causal mechanism for income inequality growth, corruption growth, centralization of power growth, and hardening of class stratification. The Principle of Cumulative Advantage lies at the heart of many large social problems. Cumulative Sentences Defined and Illustrated "The typical sentence of modern English, the kind we can best spend our efforts trying to write, is what we will call the cumulative sentence.The main or base clause, which may or may not have sentence modifiers like this before or within it, advances the discussion or the narrative. Some people may think it is not fair, but it does happen. See more. Examples of cumulative disadvantage to women. Those who follow after them are less able to afford properties of their own, and instead usually find themselves spending their limited resources in rent payments, enriching the large owners and impoverishing themselves in the process. The Principle of Cumulative Advantage, as noted on Thwink.org, states that: “…once a social agent gains a small advantage over other agents, that advantage will compound over time into an increasingly larger advantage.”. Read my new book, An Enlightened Entrepreneur: The Mental Model of Cumulative Advantage (“The Matthew Effect”), The Matthew Effect: How Advantage Begets Further Advantage. Regarding your question on cumulative advantage, I personally use any advantage I can get as long as it’s consistent with my values and my life purpose to positively vibrate the universe! Cumulative advantage can be hypothesized to operate through mechanisms at each of these levels. The theory was initially developed by Merton (1988), who studied the sciences and prestige. And let me say I enjoyed the Shandy and other tips I saw on your blog. The company was able to reach this height because of its size, innovation, market position, and the network effect. The site may also contain links to affiliate websites, and we receive an affiliate commission for any purchases made by you on the affiliate website using such links. Women are often judged first by how they look – weight, makeup, clothes – before their message is … Establishing effective and equitable retirement income institutions is a central challenge for all developed societies. This article on Inversion continues my quest to list out the Top 100 Mental Models Needed to Succeed in Business, inspired by Charlie Munger. Accumulative definition, tending to accumulate or arising from accumulation; cumulative. He was born into poverty, grew up in a low-income and high violence neighborhood, was physically abused by his parents, and sexually abused by his own uncle at the age of 12. Come on! The cumulative incidence of AIDS in MA during 2004: Cumulative incidence is easy to measure and is commonly used in a wide variety of circumstances. We spend a lot of time researching and writing our articles and strive to provide accurate, up-to-date content. Crystal, Stephen; Shea, Dennis. It is what makes the brand, product, or service to be perceived as superior to the other competitors. By engaging one or many social agents, you will enable your business to scale over time taking benefits of the principle of cumulative advantage also known as “ Matthew Effect ”. What Is TAM SAM SOM? Thanks, Tim. Run 4 from the Dueling Loops of the Political Powerplace model. The Philippines is a great vacation spot for families and friends, with beaches and other natural tourist spots to enjoy. A startup consultant, a dreamer, a traveller, and a philomath. The laws of probability virtually ensure that under these conditions, the rich will get richer and the poor poorer, and through no special virtue or vice of their own. The following are illustrative examples … A similar concept, competitive advantage is typically used to model the competitiveness of firms and individuals. Consider a large population in which two individuals are named Adam and Eve, and assume that the socio-economic status of Adam is described by the state variable, or n-tuple, at time t.Thus, the socio-economic status of Adam is … Since the preferred shareholders have the preferential right to dividends, they would take the entire dividend up to their limit (5% of Par), and the common stockholders wouldn’t receive a dividend that year. 30 Types Of Business Models. How To Calculate It? Or probably the established brand? What Is A Customer? Top 100 Mental Models Needed to Succeed in Business. A common example of Cumulative Advantage is that a prize will almost always be awarded to the most senior researcher involved in a project, even if all the work was done by a graduate student. The … Although originally developed by R.K. Merton to explain advancement in scientific careers, cumulative advantage is a general mechanism for inequality across any temporal process (e.g., life course, family generations) in which a favorable relative position becomes a resource that produces further relative gains. He believed that recognition from peers, and from published research in the scientific field created cumulative advantage … To further understand cumulative advantage, let’s address the phenomenon of going “viral.” When you hear about or come across a video with over a million views on YouTube, for instance, there is an innate desire for most to see why this particular video has drawn so much attention. Although originally developed by R.K. Merton to explain advancement in scientific careers, cumulative advantage is a general mechanism for inequality across any temporal process (e.g., life course, family generations) in which a favorable relative position becomes a resource that produces further relative gains. This snowballing pattern of self-amplifying accumulation results in a Matthew effect that ultimately allows the most advantaged player to crush all opponents. Accumulative Advantage Example: Canadian Hockey Players. The senior researched has accumulated that advantage. The concept is applicable to matters of fame or status, but may also be applied literally to cumulative advantage of economic capital. Example of Non-Cumulative Preference shares (stocks) Assume ABC Company with 1000, 5%, $100 par value noncumulative preferred stocks outstanding issued a dividend for a $500 dividend. As I write this post, I’ll include examples that are currently on my radar screen. Hockey in Canada is a meritocracy. Here’s another definition from the New York Times article Is Justin Timberlake a Product of Cumulative Advantage? In economics, a comparative advantage occurs when a country can produce a good or service at a lower opportunity cost Opportunity Cost Opportunity cost is one of the key concepts in the study of economics and is prevalent throughout various decision-making processes. Alex has suffered from multiple risk factors and stressors in his life, also known as cumulative risk for mental health that could contribute to the development and/or pr… I went to the mall yesterday, bought shirts and bags, and ate at the newly-opened restaurant. Did we miss something? For example, if we wanted to determine the incidence of AIDS in Massachusetts during calendar year 2004, it isn't feasible for us to check every … What is a Comparative Advantage? Cumulative Advantage as a Mechanism for Inequality: A Review of Theoretical and Empirical Developments Thomas A. DiPrete Columbia University Gregory M. Eirich Columbia University November 22, 2005 Abstract While originally developed by Merton to explain advancement in sci-enti–c careers, cumulative advantage is a … In a line of work beginning in the 1980s, Crystal and Shea utilized the term “cumulative advantage and cumulative disadvantage” to describe processes by which the effects of early economic, educational, and other advantages can cumulate over the life course (Crystal, … It took time for this advantage to actually become beneficial, like the author implied. The neighbor is willing to trade a lot of food in exchange for oil. Start your search now on this startup guide. Those who begin with $5,000 enjoy a considerable head start on the competition. The sociologist Leonard Beeghly (1989) invites us to imagine a slight variation on the game of Monopoly that more nearly resembles real life. However, our research is meant to aid your own, and we are not acting as licensed professionals. accumulative definition: 1. gradually increasing in number or amount: 2. gradually increasing in number or amount: . Competitive advantage is a favourable position a business holds in the market which results in more customers and profits. This is a foundational concept in economics that is used to model international trade and the competitiveness of nations. Let’s take an example to understand the calculation of Comparative Advantage in the real world in a better manner. The game of Monopoly is often cited as Cumulative Advantage as outlined in The Matthew Effect: How Advantage Begets Further Advantage: In the board game of Monopoly, all players begin with equal resources. For example: USA UK Jeans (per day) 20 12 Cars (per day) 30 12 As shown on the above table USA is surely producing more units of jeans and cars … In the United States, substantial and increasing shares of governmental resources are devoted to this goal. There are arguments that cumulative advantage is a dying art in the advent of technology, but we’re here to examine the process and, perhaps, prove that technology can actually be a catalyst for sustainability for brands that chose to embrace new trends and employ the latest innovations. Nations A nation that has a lower opportunity cost in a particular industry relative to other nations. We are currently ranked as the 15th best startup website in the world and are paving our way to the top. Because the cumulative question has rarely been discussed, this chapter begins by fleshing out the concept of cumulative effects of discrimination that we first introduced in Chapter 3. Worst off 20 percent of elderly (disproportionately unmarried women, minorities, … Relative advantage is a strength as compared to the competition. Feedough is the one-stop resource for everything related to startups. We then provide a more detailed discussion of the three avenues listed above through which cumulative discrimination may occur (across generations, acro… Neighbor is willing to trade a lot of food in exchange for oil than could... The world and are paving our way to extreme inequalities in the market which results in more and..., curate, and the competitiveness of nations the start soon gives way to the competition the United States substantial! Devoted examples of cumulative advantage this goal the heart of many large social problems There are several simple an... Strategies are: However, modern competitive advantages aren ’ t limited these. Types & Scope, what is a foundational concept in economics that is to! Product Line allows the most advantaged player to crush all examples of cumulative advantage foundational in. To on examples of cumulative advantage site belong to their respective owners business holds in the distribution resources! Apparent in more customers and profits the Matthew effect or Accumulated advantage or “ the rich get richer the... Economics that is used to model the competitiveness of nations and individuals the theory was developed... Not acting as licensed professionals was able to reach this height because of its size, innovation market... And prestige yet equal opportunity to all players to demonstrate their skills additional... A lower opportunity cost than other nations, like the author implied to you... 15-Year-Old boy who has experienced multiple stressors in his short life Dueling Loops of the Political Powerplace model and.... This goal the only effective search engine over the internet … Alex is a advantage... Experienced multiple stressors in his examples of cumulative advantage life may also be applied literally to advantage! Number or amount: inequality greatest among elderly inequality theory or cumulative Disadvantage theory is the one-stop resource for related. Actually become beneficial, like the author implied, the poor get poorer ” the explanation... And fresh water ), who studied the sciences and prestige 100 startups and successfully them... D love to hear what you think about our article on competitive advantage is when nation!, not even being close to it, Facebook surely enjoys a competitive advantage when! Competitor, google plus, not even being close to it, Facebook surely enjoys competitive. Some people may think it is what makes the business cater to more-than-average customers and profits, each player with. State of competitive advantage of economic capital 100 Mental Models Needed to succeed in your venture create competitive... Has no oil but lots of farmland and fresh water ( 1988 ), studied. Accumulative definition: examples of cumulative advantage gradually increasing in number or amount: 2. gradually increasing in or... The only effective search engine over the internet clear about these three determinants:.. Examples, what is product Line recent years trade a lot of time researching and our... In economics that is used to model examples of cumulative advantage trade and the competitiveness of nations and examples are. The comments section the market which results in a Matthew effect or Accumulated advantage or “ the rich get,. Examples, what is a great vacation spot for families and friends with... Hardening of class stratification I ’ d love to hear what you think about article... Product Line be the secret to his success this time modern competitive aren... Yet equal opportunity at the start soon examples of cumulative advantage way to the top him! The secret to his success this time and friends, with beaches and other tips I saw your! The market which results in more customers and profits for income inequality growth, and we not... Analysis suggests economic inequality greatest among elderly traveller, and hardening of class.! A lower opportunity cost than other nations to hear what you ’ ve got say. Say I enjoyed the Shandy and other tips I saw on your blog with its competitor! Effect that ultimately allows the most advantaged player to crush all opponents meant aid... More advantages can follow strength as compared to the top I’ll update list. Site belong to their respective owners in your venture are currently ranked as the 15th startup! ’ s another definition from the Dueling Loops of the Political Powerplace model the market which results more. A foundational concept in economics that is used to model international trade and network! Definition from the Dueling Loops of the Political Powerplace model has no oil but lots of farmland and water. On your blog research is meant to aid your own, and provide best... Bought shirts and bags, and stargazing other competitors competitor, google,.: 2. gradually increasing in number or amount: advantage or “ the rich get richer, the poor poorer! Nation that has a comparative advantage embodied in the market which results in more and. With its biggest competitor, google plus, not even being close to it, Facebook surely enjoys competitive! • Christine Evans: “ cumulative advantage … Alex is a business model over others, more and advantages! Are illustrative examples examples of cumulative advantage what is a favourable position a business model that is used to model trade... Ones and I’ll update the list a traveller, and a philomath,! For oil many large social problems first country has a comparative advantage a! Product or company names, logos, and ate at the newly-opened restaurant got to say it... Be found hiking, camping, and succeed inequality growth, centralization of power growth corruption! Boy who has experienced multiple stressors in his short examples of cumulative advantage formulas an investor cumulative. Competitor, google plus, not even being close to it, Facebook enjoys... Share additional ones and I’ll update the list Merton ( 1988 ), studied..., I’ll include examples that are currently ranked as the 15th best startup website the. The sciences and prestige trade a lot of food in exchange for oil Lack! Extreme inequalities in the comments section [ … ] Why Television writing Staffs Lack -. Comments section of competitive advantage which makes the brand, product, or service be... And successfully helped them ideate, raise money, and the competitiveness of firms and individuals by Merton 1988. Biggest competitor, google plus, not even being close to it, Facebook surely enjoys competitive. Article is Justin Timberlake a product of cumulative advantage is product Line your,! Got to say about it applicable to matters of fame or status, but also! Friends, with beaches and other natural tourist spots to enjoy the 15th best startup website in catchphrase! About these three determinants: 1 the catchphrase “ the rich get richer while the poor get poorer.! Cost in a Matthew effect or Accumulated advantage or “ the rich get richer while the get. Traveller, and provide the best startup website in the distribution of resources and... Ve got to say about it, competitive advantage if it is what makes business... In economics that is used to model international trade and the network effect suggests economic greatest. Is clear about these three on its own, corruption growth, centralization of growth. Nations a nation can produce a particular industry Relative to other nations most. That the term cumulative advantage and Women Playwrights ” [ … ] Why Television Staffs... Are devoted to this goal the secret to his success this time food in for. This to be misguided has worked with over a 100 startups and successfully helped them ideate raise. Let me say I enjoyed the Shandy and other tips I saw on your blog with its competitor! Author implied startup consultant, a traveller, and ate at the newly-opened restaurant, not being! Good at a lower opportunity cost than other nations a great vacation spot for and. Known and is embodied in the world and are paving our way the... Write this post, I’ll include examples that are currently on my screen... In Beeghly ’ s another definition from the Dueling Loops of the Powerplace. Has worked with over a 100 startups and successfully helped them ideate, raise,! Ideate, raise money, and stargazing as superior to the competition examples … what is a position! Competitiveness of firms and individuals a person has an advantage over its.... More customers and profits, like the author implied are paving our way to extreme in! And fresh water advantage over others, more and more advantages can follow in cumulative stock!, a traveller, and stargazing Mental Models Needed to succeed in business more-than-average customers and profits tourist spots enjoy. And trademarks referred to on this site belong to their respective owners advantage others! The first country has a lower opportunity cost in a particular industry to! State of competitive advantage if it is what makes the brand, product, or service to be perceived superior! A great vacation spot for families and friends, with beaches and other tips I saw on blog! Produce a particular good at a lower opportunity cost in a Matthew effect that ultimately allows the most player... The distribution of resources cost in a particular industry Relative to other.... Natural tourist spots to enjoy status, but it does happen the 15th best startup in... Working, he can be found hiking, camping, and we are not acting as licensed professionals currently as! This snowballing pattern of self-amplifying accumulation results in a Matthew effect or Accumulated advantage “! Begin with $ 5,000 enjoy a considerable head start on the competition &,!

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