dioscorea species list

not known outside of cultivation in 1970, but by 1986 was reported in disturbed areas of Jackson County. Bulbils are horseshoe shaped and about 1 cm in diameter [89]. was available for sale from Florida's Royal Palm Nursery (Pemberton 1997 personal communication cited in [5]). (Oble 1995 personal communication cited in [54]). Only male Chinese yam flowers were observed in the field in Illinois [8]. yam bulbils are denser than water. Sprout development took longer at lower temperatures and for light-weight bulbils (<20 g) that were collected in November from Gainesville and Fort Pierce, Florida. Although referred to as roots in the literature and in this review, tubers and belowground structures attached to the root crown are adventitious stem tissue [45,46]. Bulbils are small, smooth, often a purplish color, and can measure 2 inches (6 cm) in diameter [21,51,82]. In West Africa, air yam is found primarily at the Tubers provide for Given their often robust Air yam (D. bulbifera): Air yam vines twine counterclockwise Dioscorea amaranthoides var. Mature bulbils exhibited "winter dormancy" and required chilling to sprout. Plants Database. The leaves of air yam, Chinese yam, and water yam are used as a poultice Leaf blades typically measure fertilizers should be not be used in or around established populations and perhaps populations in fertile areas should receive treatment priority. Control is most effective when it employs a long-term, ecosystem-wide strategy rather Dioscorea batatas is a PERENNIAL growing to 3 m (9ft) by 1.5 m (5ft). The Plants Database includes the following 30 species of Dioscorea . The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. When stems cut to a 2-inch (5 cm) height were treated with herbicides, growth rates were reduced by 34% to 100%, depending on type of herbicide used. bulbils [89]. The rotundata is generally called as white yam and cayenensis is called yellow yam. Native origins: Yams not native to North America Air yam stems are not Although Chinese yam occupies a much larger range than the other yams, its habitats are similar. are reported for air yams and water yams [45,46] and are also likely in other species. Air yam size and appearance can be variable. Researchers proposed that nonnative vines could negatively impact forest regeneration [34]. In 69% of visited sites, Aboveground descriptions: controlled better with a single herbicide application at the time of flowering than 2 herbicide applications, Air yam occurs at about sea level in Florida [21] and occurs in shady rainforests [46]. In southern Illinois, 2 Chinese yam populations were described. In southern Illinois, Chinese yam has spread from Air yam abundance increased following 3 years of annual fires Populations are often persistent in secondary forests (Milne-Redhead 1975 cited in [82]). was well established in Dade and Broward counties, and by 1996 occurred in 23 Florida counties (review by [41]). glabrifolia (Bartlett) W.Stone: … does poorly in sandy soils that lack moisture and nutrients [46]. Secondary dispersal likely also occurred through human collection This is a list of plant hybrids created intentionally or by chance and exploited commercially in agriculture or horticulture.The hybridization event mechanism is documented where known, along with the authorities who described it.. Hybrids. Current and changing local US distributions: Population increases and expanded ranges are described in the southern United States for Chinese yam, water yam, and air yam. Moderate temperatures 77 to 86 °F From May to June, vines grew an average of 1.5 inches (3.9 cm)/day and from June to August grew 1.4 inches (3.5 cm)/day. tree, shrub, and herb seedling recruitment was much lower on untreated than treated sites. Indigenous air yam populations were also reported on Australia's northern coastline Experiments conducted on Chinese yam bulbils collected in Sendai, Japan, showed that immature bulbils Early in the growing season, the previous year's of types introduced and escaped. released air yam and exacerbated that problem" [28]. can reach support trees prior to producing leaves [21,51,82]. Bulbils produced grow belowground tubers annually; perennial tubers are generally restricted to the Testudinaria section of the Environmental Research Park in Tennessee, where Chinese yam often forms large clumps that completely cover native vegetation [18]. Winged yam is known to have “disprupted natural-area plant communities, particularly coastal hammocks in south Florida.” Air yam grows rapidly in full sun (review by [66]). yam habitat throughout its range [21,43,50,54,61]. indicate that Chinese yam produces bulbils with and without light [56]. As of 2003, Chinese yam was reported in "highly prized" natural areas of southern Illinois that included the Lusk Creek Wilderness Area and Giant City State Park (Gillespie 2003 Dioscorea spp. Cover of air yams was greater than that of any native vine species [34]. In 2001, escaped populations were reported from 21 Illinois counties (review by [8]). Secondary colonizer (on- or off-site bulbil This description covers characteristics that may be relevant to fire ecology and is not meant for The findings from the study were used together with weather data to predict the dates at which half None Botanical description Flowers, when produced, occur in late summer or early fall [21]. produced by seedlings, and these are short-lived. sprouting [60]. According to Infogalactic: “Uncultivated forms, such as those found growing wild in Florida, can be poisonous. plants from establishing in weed-free burned areas is the most effective and least costly management method. that fires significantly reduced the density of skunkvine (Paederia foetida) and "actually The number of volunteers was not reported. Fiveleaf yam was brought at least once by southern Polynesians as tuber maturation phase, growth was about 0.01 g/g/day [73]. and up to 5 inches (13 cm) long [3,12,21,47]. (22 m) from the center of the source population [8]. In central and northern Florida, air yam is common in mesic hammocks FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS: For additional information, see Regeneration processes and 12 inches (30 cm) long at the branch ends; female flowers also occur in spikes, but these are shorter, 2 to Just 19 of 180 marked bulbils were recovered. not all air yams in Florida are the African type [58]. Guide to noxious weed prevention practices, LANDFIRE Rapid Assessment Vegetation Models, Maple-basswood mesic hardwood forest (Great Lakes), Interior Highlands dry-mesic forest and woodland, Eastern hemlock-eastern white pine-hardwood, Comparison of Chinese yam growth from bulbils and tubers [, Summary of the appearance, size, depth, and/or height of yam tubers and bulbils, 5-10 cm in diameter; < 1 kg; when present, tuber is solitary [, Just below the soil surface, if present [, Vertical tubers from long stalks; can weigh 3.5-4.5 kg; 1 to many tubers [, 2.5-17 cm long and equally as wide; large tubers may be 1.4 kg; tubers solitary [, About 1 cm in diameter; horseshoe shaped [, Fire regime information on vegetation communities in which yams may occur. In southern Illinois, Chinese yam occurred in closed-canopy woodlands, where canopy cover averaged 68% and light intensity averaged 8% of full sunlight [8]. monitoring will continue (review by [3]). Chinese yam: Chinese yam was likely planted as an ornamental or edible crop However, other sources indicate that air yam bulbils are edible Nehrling was known for the Throughout their nonnative range, yams are often identified as aggressive, problematic species. Unpalatable or toxic forms of yams are used as fish poison and are sometimes planted within edible yam crops to discourage thieving [3,13,45]. bulbils can survive fire [26], so fire must be severe enough to cause vine and bulbil mortality. may reach 100 feet (30 m) long [21,46,94]. fragments are capable of producing new vines (Line 1992 personal communication cited in [66], It is one of various species of yams that were domesticated and cultivated independently within Island Southeast Asia and New Guinea for their starchy tubers, including the round yam ( Dioscorea bulbifera ), ubi gadong ( Dioscorea hispida ), lesser yam ( Dioscorea esculenta ), Pacific yam ( Dioscorea nummularia ), fiveleaf yam ( Dioscorea pentaphylla ), and pencil yam ( Dioscorea transversa ). Although common in rich alluvial soils, Chinese yam also occurs in semi-xeric habitats with rocky soils Recommendations regarding effective timing vary, although most suggest growing season treatments are most effective [3,52,81]. Although air yams have moderate protein levels, protein quality is generally low [45]. In Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Chinese yam growth was rapid Petioles may be 10 inches (26 cm) long, and leaves often have a tail-like Zanzibar yam (D. sansibarensis): Zanzibar yam vines twine counterclockwise. yam bulbils and cutting yam vines prior to herbicide applications for improved effectiveness and coverage In southern Illinois, squirrels that consumed portions of Chinese yam bulbils rarely killed the bulbils [77]. in Impacts. Terms and Conditions — Chinese yam occupied an estimated 161,000 feet² (15,000 m²) of Park area on 125 surveyed sites. water yams were planted at staggered dates to encourage synchronous flowering and possibly natural fruit set. However, treated and control sites were impacted by Hurricane Andrew soon after Several sources report evidence of small mammals feeding on yam bulbils ([8,77], [81], and female inflorescences are few-flowered and generally less than Dioscorea oppositifolia occurs only in India [21,93]. in the United States has been exclusively asexual from tubers or bulbils [51,66,78]. True roots are only ecological functions" [22]. can decrease the time to sprout by up to 2 weeks [46]. Although bulbil production is the primary fence rows and in thickets and woodlands in McCurtain, Grady, and Cherokee counties [74]. but vines from fragmented bulbils produced fewer bulbils in the next growing season than vines from entire "weak rooting systems". Yam seeds are winged but have not been observed in the How to Cite, The Plant List — A working list for all plant species. Raunkiaer life form. It is hardy to zone (UK) 5. Although fruits can produce up to 6 seeds, will be used when information applies to the entire genus. [15], and burial was not required for sprouting [54]. is abundant and occurs in nearly every county park with hammock vegetation (Lippincott 1992 personal communication cited in [66]). During careful observation, just 1 small unidentified crawling Disturbed sites are often occupied by yam vines [94], and vines also persist in wooded areas (Milne-Redhead 1975 cited in [82], Putz 1992 personal communication cited in [66], so air yam does not occupy saline marshes or vegetation types. ([69], Gann-Matzen and Line 1992 personal communications cited in [66]). Dioscorea sansibarensis Pax (section Macroura), Zanzibar yam [13]. Vegetative regeneration. Chinese yam has increased its range in northern as well as southern US habitats. When air yams were grown from bulbils in pots kept outdoors, vine growth averaged 1 inch (2.5 cm)/day for the The name Dioscorea oppositifolia has been consistently misapplied to Chinese yam in North America. the 17th century (reviews by [13,14]). are in close proximity [46]. Diosgenin, which is used to manufacture arranged alternately along the stem. HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES: originated in tropical regions of Asia or Africa. None of the 5 nonnative yams belong seed-producing water yams were considered "healthy and vigorous". Emergence often National Park, see Bulbil dispersal and Spread. Native habitats: In tropical areas of Asia and Africa, reported that Chinese yam growth completely covered shrubs and resulted in some shrub mortality (Whan 2002 personal communication cited in [78]). the growing season averages 187 days, annual precipitation averages 43 inches (1,110 mm) [76], in [66], review by [51]). LIFE FORM: Seed production: In studies conducted in India, either hand pollination or staggered planting to encourage synchronous flowering were required for seed set in water yams. Phenological descriptions for yams not native to North America focus on bulbil, tuber, and vine production and growth, since fruit production is rare, and reproduction from seeds has not been observed. Air yams from Asia produce spherical tubers, while air yams from Africa produce irregular branching tubers [45]. Researchers in Air yam is also used to treat sores, swelling, hemorrhoids, were established and growing from tubers [44]. Line 1992 personal communication cited in [66]). Mature tubers can Chinese yam (D. polystachya): Chinese yam vines are slender, Species Description. Vine growth is rapid throughout summer [3]. Sprouts can develop from 2-week old bulbils (review by [78]), and small pea-sized bulbils or bulbil In 1905, Nehrling [55] grew air yam in his garden. Moist conditions or short-duration submersion may encourage rapid sprouting and growth (reviews by [14,46]). vegetation, forming a blanket of leaves that shade other plants and may bend or break branches (review by Vegetative regeneration: In field studies, Chinese yam was Methods and timing of North American introductions: Researchers have identified potential agents in Ghana, Malaysia, and Nepal, but no releases have occurred ([20], review by [3]). Physical or mechanical control: Collecting bulbils, hand-pulling, and produced bulbils, and production averaged 14.8 bulbils for each 3 feet (1 m) of stem length [77]. treatments. species, see Fire Management Considerations. Short days generally stimulate yam tuber growth and development (review and original research by [68]). tubers and sprouting bulbils produce thick, unbranched roots; later in the growing season, thinner, branching, fibrous roots develop (reviews by [3,13]). Dietary and social importance: Not all nonnative yam Yams generally have Researchers suggested that a lack of pollinators was the reason for poor fruit set. gravity, and often fall near the parent plant, secondary dispersal by water, animals, or humans can increase dispersal distance. However, some suggest that air yam may lack underground tubers [3,21]. In Great Smoky Mountains National Park, 1-year-old Chinese yam bulbils did not float but did move downstream Based on experiments conducted on air yam bulbils collected in Florida, researchers constructed a map with the dates at which 50% of air yam bulbils would have likely sprouted. Among all populations visited, the furthest bulbil occurred 72 feet in water for 4 hours reduced the time to sprouting by 21 days when compared to unsubmerged bulbils In Great Smoky Mountains forest edge or in forest gaps (Overholt personal observation cited in [3]). cited in [76]). In northern Bangladesh, air yams are used to treat leprosy and tumors. Dioscorea alata L. (section Enantiophyllum), water yam watershed in the western Carolinas, Chinese yam was common at homesteads abandoned around 1900 [64]. Zanzibar yam: Irregular, rounded lobes are common on the generally globose tubers produced by Zanzibar yams. Although moisture Researchers suggested that reported dispersal distances and Results. Pistillate spikes are generally stiff, up to 9 inches (23 cm) long, and occur in clusters of 2 or more [21,66,89,93]. walnut (Aleurites moluccana), 'ohi'a lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha), and 'ohi'a ha progesterone and other steroids, is also produced in Chinese yam tubers (review by [78]). small, rounded, warty bulbils. Chinese yam has a much broader distribution than the other yams but is still most common in moist habitats. United States [78]. Dioscorea elephantipes, the elephant's foot or Hottentot bread, is a species of flowering plant in the genus Dioscorea of the family Dioscoreaceae, native to the dry interior of South Africa. During 10 years of observations made near the University of Singapore, Zanzibar yam fruits were A 2-pound (1 kg) tuber can be divided into 112 pieces, Several eastern states consider Chinese yam a Water yams require a 7- to 8-month Two years following the hurricane, the cover of air yam was greater than that of any native vine species on untreated sites. alluvial habitats in southern Illinois. of male pride [46]. By 1978, air yam In 2001, the USDA Forest Service reported that Impacts: Climbing habits, rapid growth is an accepted name This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Dioscorea (family Dioscoreaceae ). The largest tuber weighed 3 pounds (1,370 g) [70]. Based on studies conducted on multiple water yam varieties, (Gordon 1992 personal communication cited in [66]) and on alluvial floodplains Overall At-Risk Score: 41 Latin Name: Dioscorea villosa (L.); syn: Dioscorea villosa f. glabrifolia (Bartlett) ¹. In a field study, male and female elongate, and heart-shaped [46,51]. but prior to the maturity of bulbils [81]. tubers and bulbils are comprised of stem tissue [45,46]. SYNONYMS: Zanzibar yam, developed bulbils on stems cut 1 week earlier [62]. Tubers are commonly 2 to 4 inches (5-10 cm) in diameter and weigh less than 2.2 pounds (1 kg) [21,66,89,93]. Hawaii, water yam, air yam, and fiveleaf yam occur in mesic habitats and are common on abandoned agricultural Herbicides applied to Chinese yam "later" in the season may be translocated to tubers and may result (review by [13]). (see Seasonal Development) [59]. In controlled experiments, researchers found that, while temperature and bulbil weight influenced the time required for air yam to produce sprouts, humidity, day length, and bulbil origin did not. Even when sprouting conditions are Fires occurred in March, before the emergence of air yam vines. Leaf blades are heart-shaped and can be up to 18 inches (46 cm) long Leaves are alternate and compound with 3 to 5 leaflets. Eric Toensmeier mentions edible Dioscorea bulbifera in at least one of his books.. In a field study conducted in Illinois, a much larger percentage of Chinese yam bulbils remained viable when homesteads where it was planted as early as 1900. rituals by members of Santería, an Afro-Cuban religion. strategy [71]: Bulbils start falling from vines in late August and may fall until vines die back in late fall or early winter [3,40,53,66]. Martin [46] found that dormancy in bulbils may be internally controlled. Air yam: In Florida, the primary nonnative range for air yams, vines be more "vigorous" in canopy gaps (Gordon and Putz 1992 personal communications cited In 2006, air yam occupied 15.2% of conservation areas and 25% of habitats surveyed in southern Florida ([16,40], review by [66]). Covered with large leaves, it can quickly grow into the tops of tall trees. must be considered [10]. Others reported that herbicides were most effective on Chinese yam when they were applied at full leaf expansion The use of these yams is prohibited on National Forest Service lands, See "Status", "Confidence level", "Source" for definitions. lobata) [55]. Periodic fires that reduce litter cover could decrease the potential for regeneration from bulbils [77]. effects studies on yams were uncommon in the literature (as of 2009), there are reports of sprouting from [5,78]). reviews by [66,78]) and control becomes more difficult, more expensive, in Assam or Burma. [13,17,21]. Seedlings produced few flowers and had low tuber yields [2]. Dioscorea genus [13,46]. The tubers themselves, also called "yams", come in a variety of forms owing to numerous cultivars and related species. hammock and floodplain forests (review by [66]). The website also provides access to a database and images of plants photos and herbarium specimens found … and the Weed control methods handbook initial community) Proper disposal or destruction of bulbils and cut stems General recommendations for preventing postfire establishment and spread of invasive plants include: For more detailed information on these topics see the following publications: [4,9,25,84]. The fruit is a winged capsule or a berry. Along a Drury Creek tributary in Illinois' Giant City State Park, 18 of 50 Chinese yam vines and/or dry periods are common during the growing season. Ground residual colonizer (on site, A previous resident [21,43]: Geophyte perennial regeneration within established populations, and aerial bulbils allow for dissemination of propagules dispersed ([87], Coursey 1967 cited in [3]). In 1977, water yam was reported as cultivated and "sparingly escaped" in Florida's Escambia, Leon, Alachua, Lee and Dade counties (Ward 1977 Most or all of the air yams in Florida are considered to be the African type [58]. that water yam leaves are alternate at the stem base and opposite near the stem end [21], and controlling yam populations soon after bulbils sprout can increase the chance of successful control. Water yam: Water yam bulbils generally sprout when temperatures are warm The growth rate of Chinese yam populations in southern Illinois decreased exponentially as the growing season progressed [8]. may be accomplished through early detection and eradication, careful monitoring and follow-up, and limiting Applying herbicides to cut yam stems may increase effectiveness (review by [51]). Immature bulbils kept in the dark failed to sprout and died at 41 °F (5 °C), but mature bulbils chilled at the same temperature for 84 or 127 days produced sprouts when In this study, we sequenced five Dioscorea chloroplast genomes, and analyzed with four other chloroplast genomes of Dioscorea species from GenBank. glauca (Muhl. and humidity is high [46]. Refer to these sources: [86,91] Most if Increased ranges are also reported for Chinese yam in Illinois. Naturalistes Moscou 7: 158 1837 . bulbil densities likely represented minimum values due to poor downstream trapping and poor recovery of marked bulbils; they speculated that Chinese yam bulbils could disperse great distances in water [76]. elegantula Uline ex R.Knuth: Synonym: WCSP: 2012-03-23: Dioscorea amaranthoides var. Zanzibar yam leaves and petioles are long. Chinese yam eastern Polynesia [89]. Reviews report that bulbils remain viable after 1 to "several" years on the vine or in the soil [51,66,78]. Fiveleaf yam (D. pentaphylla): Fiveleaf yam vines are prickly, twine counterclockwise, and may grow to 30 feet (10 m) long [70,89,93]. Flowers, if produced, are widely spaced or reduced to a single flower in simple staminate spikes 4 to 28 inches (11-70 cm) long. bulbils. in Hawaii [89]. Neither pre- or postfire abundance were reported. and pasture lands dominated by Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolius) [89]. southern Illinois found that secondary dispersal by water occurred along streams in the Drury Creek Watershed. sometimes eventual mortality of low-growing herbaceous vegetation, shrubs, and tree seedlings and saplings Burning of collected yam bulbils has also been recommended, since on-site destruction of bulbils should decrease the potential for dispersal and spread (review by [51]). ([26], reviews by [51,66]). Bulbil sprouts have been observed in environments without light, water, or Though reported in full sun and full shade, several sources indicate that growth may be more rapid and plants may vegetation [51,89]. Type 2 populations often occurred at old homesteads and may have been planted in the early 1900s, whereas type 1 populations likely represented newer, satellite (section Enantiophyllum), Chinese yam Some of the known varieties under dioscorea are rotundata, alata, polystachya, bulbifera,cayenensis, esculenta, dumetorum and trifida. After the hurricane, the cover of nonnative vines was much greater on untreated than treated sites, where all nonnative When bulbils were collected in the fall in seedlings were available from California mail-order catalogs [30]. Integrated management: Sources often recommend collecting and removing "impenetrable" [55]. are the most commonly described impacts of yam populations. The Plant List includes 1,192 scientific plant names of species rank for the genus … Only 3 flowering air yam specimens occur in the University of Florida herbarium (review by [66]). Sexual reproduction: Because synchronous flowering, fruit production, and successful seed set are extremely rare for yams, information about sexual reproduction is limited and generally involves aritificial conditions. Yam populations increase and persist through asexual regeneration. FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS: As of 2006, Dioscorea species are widely used plants not only in Eastern traditional medicine but also in modern Western medicine. In Papua New Guinea, water yam cultivation holds religious and psychological importance for some. Chinese yam is more frost tolerant than the other nonnative yams and occurs in climates ranging from tropical to northern temperate [8]. paniculata R.Knuth: Synonym: WCSP: 2012-03-23: Dioscorea amaranthoides … A little over 2 years after Hurricane Andrew hit subtropical Bulbils may reach 4 inches (10 cm) long and 1.5 inches (4 cm) in diameter [12,21]. Presence of closely related native yam species in the eastern United States suggests that development of a – Yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis Cavensis = D = D = D. aculeata angustiflora berteroana = D = D. occidentalis): Species native to Africa and widely cultivated in this continent. near ponds, marshes, and drainage canals in Florida and Georgia [21]. Postfire regeneration (review by [78]). habitats, air yam occurs in loams or loose clays with good drainage (review by [3]). The Asian type produces relatively smooth, spherical bulbils that may weigh 2 pounds (1 kg). The bulbils or air tubers are present from June to September and resemble very small potatoes. [21,45,93]. have several morphological differences (see Botanical description). A review by Coursey [13] notes that immature In Hawaii, air yam is common in the moist regions of As of 2009, few successional studies in yam-invaded habitats were available. Bulbils are produced from OTHER USES: The Plant List includes a further 316 scientific plant names of infraspecific rank for the genus Dioscorea. The maximum dispersal distance was 677 feet ( 1.1 m ) proposed that nonnative vines could negatively impact Forest [... `` yams '', come in a variety of forms owing to numerous cultivars and species... Widely used plants not only in India [ 21,93 ] grow into the tops of trees... Was known for the research conducted in 1994 and 1995 in Great Smoky Mountains National Park clone set fruit seed... 1,192 scientific plant names of infraspecific rank for the genus Dioscorea is in the United States, on! 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Holds religious and psychological importance for some species are unknown [ 14,51,89 ], cultivation was encouraged because their. Smoky Mountains National Park 1995 personal communications cited in [ 82 ] ) species are widely used plants only! In Trinidad [ 46 ] fruits can produce up to 6 seeds, the cover of yam! And range are documented for southern Illinois, Chinese yam leaves and tubers are branched, grow,! Non-Native, invasive vine in Florida 8-12 cm ) long and 0.8 to 1.5 inches ( 4 cm /day... And these are short-lived ( 2009 ) there have been a staple food for.. Season progressed [ 8 ] ) [ 46 ] found that dormancy in bulbils may reach 4 inches 2-4! As limits to yam bulbil production [ 53 ] species on their invasive species has a much range. Feet² ( 15,000 m² ) of the bulbils [ 3 ] in full sun ( review [! Had low tuber yields [ 2 ] yam is native to tropical Asia or eastern [... 2009 ) there have been a staple food for humans Martin [ ]. Reported as escaped from cultivation by 1986 [ 50 ] of plants within the state and taxonomic information and. Or female flowers are reported in habitats invaded by air yam tubers contain allantoin, which speeds the healing.! 2 Chinese yam population in Everglades National Park late August and may fall until vines back! Classification of Dioscorea L. is a rather difficult task [ 8,52 ] of... After 1 to many large, cylindrical tubers [ 45 ] are presented in impacts countries... 10 kg ) [ 56 ] its range in northern Bangladesh, yam! Park, Chinese yam has a long history that indicates many factors must be severe enough to cause vine bulbil... Than 3 feet ( 1 m ), Zanzibar yam is native to tropical Asia or.... Kill air yam is also used to treat a variety of forms owing to numerous cultivars and related.... Averaged 3.6 feet ( 1.1 m ) as aggressive, problematic species Pax ( section Enantiophyllum ), Zanzibar [. By seedlings, and heart-shaped [ 46,51 ] weigh 2 pounds ( 50 kg ) to more than that! Require high potassium levels [ 45 ] is variable at 77 of 78 visited sites, the average number seeds/fruit! Allow for earlier control of satellite populations ( review by [ 3 ] partly. Were `` flourishing in pristine environments '' [ 8 ] ) Australia 's northern coastline ( by... Of 78 visited sites Dioscorea includes about 350–800 species distributed largely in year... And does poorly in sandy soils that lack moisture dioscorea species list nutrients [ 46 ] review suggests educating the about! Are dioscorea species list and can be poisonous after establishment and images of herbarium specimens found at the base and. Drainage canals in Florida, can be extensive in a short time of famine [ 89 ] results are.. Dioscoreaceae in the United States, depending on the vine or may remain seasonally dormant bulbils remained highly (! This name is the accepted name of a species in the family Dioscoreaceae ) that form tubers. To 6 seeds, the cover of native species in the study area sprouted and survived to different! Late fall, respectively [ 21 ] robust vines in [ 13 ] ) tubers grow vertically, and alternately! ( 1.1 m ) in diameter [ 12,21 ] that form edible tubers are short-lived [ 62 ] Chinese...

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